True or False: Charcoal is a principle component of gun powder?

True.  Gunpowder also known as black powder is a mixture of charcoal, sulfur and potassium nitrate (saltpeter).  The charcoal and sulfur act as fuels and the saltpeter acts as an oxidizer. Sugar could also be used as the fuel instead of charcoal. A traditional ratio of the ingredients would be about 15:3:2 potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur by weight.

A word on how it's made:

“The second kind of flying fire is made in this way. Take 1lb of native sulfur, 2lb of linden or willow charcoal, 6lb of saltpeter, which three thing are very finely powdered on a marble slab. Then put as much powder as desired into a case to make a flying fire or thunder. Note:  The case for flying fire should be narrow and long and filled with well-pressed powder. The case for making thunder should be short and thick and half-filled with the said powder and at each end strongly bound with iron wire.” –Marcus Graecus. Liber Ignuim, ca. 1280 AD

Not all of the recipes in the Liber Ignium can be trusted but this one is pretty much dead on.

 

References:

Partington, James Riddick. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998

Dunn, Kevin M., Caveman Chemistry, Universal Publishers, 2003 ISBN 1-58112-566-6

 

 

True or False: You make charcoal by heating organic matter such as wood in an oxygen poor environment?

Charcoal Pit
Charcoal pit. Image credit: sarahemcc
Charcoal Pit

True. Charcoal can be made from anything containing carbon. Traditionally wood has been the raw material used to make charcoal. Wood consists of three main components: cellulose, lignin and water.  These compounds are composed almost entirely from atoms of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon.  Charcoal is made by removing the hydrogen and oxygen in the wood while leaving just the carbon.

Making charcoal consists of 4 steps.

1.)    Drying the wood to be made into charcoal.

2.)    Heating the wood in an oxygen limited environment.   Limiting the oxygen keeps the process from turning into full combustion which would reduce the wood  to ash. As the wood heats the following changes occur:

  • At 100°C the chemical bonds begin to break.
  • 100° to 200°C, noncombustible products, such as carbon dioxide, traces of organic compounds and water vapor, are produced.
  • Above 200°C the celluloses break down, producing tars and flammable volatiles.  If these are mixed with air and heated to the ignition temperature, combustion reactions occur.  That is why it is important to keep the environment oxygen poor.
  • Above 200°C the lignin in the wood starts to breakdown in an exothermic reaction. This releases additional energy which can cause the temperature of the wood to rise to 400°C or more. 

3.)    The wood should continue to be heated to between 450- 500°C.  A temperature of 500°C gives a typical fixed carbon content of about 85% and a volatile content of about 10%. The yield of charcoal at this temperature is about 33% of the weight of the oven dry wood. 

4.)    The wood is allowed to cool in an oxygen limited environment to prevent the oxidation (combustion) of the remaining carbon.

 

Charcoal pit sketch by Nancy Aldrich
Charcoal Pit

Traditionally this was done by piling dry wood into a dome shaped mound.   The mound was then covered with smaller branches, leaves and finally dirt.  Covering the mound limited its exposure to oxygen. A flue was left open in the middle of the mound to introduce hot coals and start the mound to smoldering.  The shape of the mound is important because as the wood transforms to charcoal it shrinks in size.   This shrinking inevitably causes holes in the outer covering of dirt which allows more oxygen into the mound.  These holes have to be plugged quickly or the mound will catch fire and all the potential charcoal will go up in smoke.  Planning for the shrinking of the mound helps to minimize the work in plugging holes as they appear.   The key is to keep the entire mound smoldering but not burning.  This requires constant attention.  If there isn’t enough oxygen the mound will cool too much and if there is too much oxygen the mound will catch fire.  The Swiss have been making charcoal this way since the Middle Ages. It might take two men three weeks to build the mound of 700kg (1500lbs) which will then burn for 12-18 days.  The charcoal burner must spend the entire time by the mound tending to it as it smolders.

 

Charcoal Barrel
Charcoal barrel

A more modern method (and one that requires less attention) is to seal up the wood in a fireproof container with a small hole in it so that it can vent the gasses that are produced and then place the container in a fire or kiln.   This allows more attention to be paid to the fire that is providing the heat without having to worry that the wood being charred is being exposed to too much oxygen.  Here a steel barrel has been converted to a charcoal kiln.  The wood would be loaded into the barrel and then it would be sealed up.  A fire would be lit underneath the barrel to provide the necessary heat.  Note how it vents the gasses from the barrel back into the fire with the tube that comes out of the barrel.  This set up could be made much more efficient if the barrel were surrounded by earth or bricks to help trap the heat.   (Photo from http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-some-Charcoal/)

 

Odd Notes: The process of driving off the hydrogen and oxygen by thermal decomposition is called pyrolysis.  Pyrolysis is the same process that is used to turn coal into coke. It is also used to make carbon fiber. When carried to an extreme so that it leaves mostly carbon residue it is called carbonization.

 

References:

http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/09/03/us-swiss-charcoal-idUSLQ29563720080903

http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5328e/x5328e05.htm#TopOfPage

http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf1989/levan89a.pdf

What secret don’t survival books teach you about making fire with friction?

Hand Fire Drill
Example of fire by friction image by Steve Sanford for Field and Stream. 
Hand Fire Drill

Answer: The type of wood used for the spindle and hearth board is crucial to making an ember. This is an often overlooked fact in many descriptions of making fire by friction.

What you are trying to do is create a very fine wood dust and then heat it to between 371-426°C (700-800°F). When that occurs, the wood dust starts to glow and it forms an ember much like the tip of a lit cigarette. That glowing ember can then be coaxed into a flame by adding it to a bundle of very dry tinder and blowing.

There are several ways to try to accomplish this; bow drill, hand drill, fire plow, or fire saw. They all have one thing in common. The type of wood used is crucial to making an ember. It comes down to the quality of the wood dust formed during friction and the ability of the wood to retain the heat where the dust is forming. Low density woods (softwoods) don’t transmit heat as well as hardwoods and therefore they keep the heat concentrated near the wood dust.

Storm from Primitive Ways has personally made hundreds of embers by method of the hand drill using various combinations of wood. He has created a chart of the combinations (PDF) and the effort it took to create an ember (if it was possible at all). It is important to note that not every combination of wood will successfully create an ember.  So if you are not having success it could be that the combination of wood you have chosen won’t work.

 

References:

Storm's guide to using the hand drill should get you started http://stoneageskills.com/articles/handdrill1.html

What secret would have allowed the ancient Egyptians to create hydraulic cement (like Portland cement)?

Clinker kiln used to create Portland cement.

The Egyptians could have been building structures out of concrete if they had only known the secret to making hydraulic cement.  In the early 19th century, a bricklayer named Joseph Aspdin in Leeds, England first made Portland cement by burning powdered limestone and clay in his kitchen stove. He named it Portland cement because of its similarity to Portland stone, a type of building stone that was quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England. The secret to Portland cement are the compounds belite (Ca2SiO4) and alite (Ca3O·SiO4). When they are mixed with water (hydrated) they form crystals that grow like tiny rock-hard fingers wrapping around the sand and gravel creating concrete. This means that concrete will harden underwater. Concrete doesn’t harden because it dries out. It hardens because the Portland cement (which is a hydraulic cement) uses water to form crystals within the matrix of the concrete. The compounds responsible for this are created by heating a mixture of ground limestone and clay (or shale) to temperatures between 1400-1450 °C.

 

A modern manufacturing process consists of three stages:

 

1.) Grinding a mixture of limestone and clay or shale to make a fine "rawmix.

The limestone contributes calcium carbonate while the clay or shale provides the silicon and aluminum oxides needed to form belite and alite. Limestone with some impurities is preferred to limestone that is pure calcium carbonate.

 

2.) Heating the rawmix to a sintering temperature of (1400–1450 °C)

This fuses the rawmix into lumps or nodules which is called “clinker”. The clinker once cooled is relatively stable and can be stored.

 

3.) Grinding the resulting clinker to make cement

The grinding is usually done with gypsum to facilitate the grinding and to prevent flash setting (premature loss of workability or plasticity of cement paste) of the cement

 

Grinding the limestone to a fine enough powder before mixing it with clay would be difficult with the grinding technology of the Ancient Egypt so it would be better to comminute the limestone by burning and slaking than by grinding. This would be done by heating the limestone to 900°C for several hours which would turn the limestone into quick lime. After it has cooled, the quicklime would be combined with water to form slaked lime.  This slaked lime would be combined with the clay or shale to form the raw mix and then steps 2 and 3 would be resumed.

In the second stage as the rawmix is heated, these chemical reactions take place as the temperature of the rawmix rises:

  •  70 to 110 °C – Free water is evaporated.
  • 400 to 600 °C – clay-like minerals are decomposed into their constituent oxides; principally SiO2 and Al2O3Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) decomposes to calcium carbonate, MgO and CO2.
  • 650 to 900 °C – calcium carbonate reacts with SiO2 to form belite (Ca2SiO4).
  • 900 to 1050 °C – the remaining calcium carbonate decomposes to calcium oxide and CO2.
  • 1300 to 1450 °C – partial (20–30%) melting takes place, and belite reacts with calcium oxide to form alite (Ca3O·SiO4).

Alite is the characteristic constituent of Portland cement. Typically, a peak temperature of 1400–1450 °C is required to complete the reaction. The partial melting causes the material to aggregate into lumps or nodules, typically of diameter 1–10 mm. This is called clinker.

The clinker once ground with gypsum is a hydraulic cement than can then be used to create concrete. Below is the depiction of a modern rotary kiln.  Ground limestone and clay enter as raw materials and clinker falls out the other end.

Clinker kiln used to create Portland cement.

Image from http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/wtc/evidence/principles_portlandcement.html

Where do you find flint or obsidian to make stone tools?

For the sake of simplicity, we have lumped the preferred materials for making stone tools into two broad categories; flint-like and obsidian. The flint-like materials (such as chert) are mainly made from Silicon dioxide (SiO2) which is also known as silica.

Chert is created when microscopic single-celled algae die and their silica rich skeletons fall to the ocean floor and dissolve and reform. The microcrystal formation of the silicon dioxide is what gives the flint-like materials their unique properties (hardness and conchoidal fracture). Chert nodules are often found in large deposits of chalk and some of the oldest mining operations in the world are in chalk deposits where they mined for chert. The mines at Grimes Graves are a good example of man mining for flint as long as 5000 years ago. It is interesting to note that they often rejected many shallower seams of chert in favor of better quality chert.

Bottom line: When searching for flint-like stones, search for large deposits of chalk or limestone. Search for fault lines or mountain ranges that may have exposed layers of an ancient sea floor. Large rivers or river beds might hold chert nodules that washed down from their source. Dont' forget that most chert will be surrounded by a cortex of material that will not make it stand out from other stones in the area.

Obsidian can be found near old lava flows because it is essentially natural glass. It can be found where lava contacted water, or where it cooled while airborne or along the edges of a lava flow. Obsidian is susceptible to weathering and as such it is rarely older than a few million years.

What two secrets do you need to know about knapping in order to create stone tools?

Hertzian Cone

Knapping can be an incredibly complex art that can require years of experience to create beautiful and functional tools. But knapping, in its simplest form, is banging two stones together causing one to fracture and create a sharp edge. That edge could be used as a crude tool as it is. Probably 80% of the tasks you would need to tackle could be done with that edge. The next 15% of refinement would probably take weeks or a few months to learn and the last 5% of refinement may take years. So for simplicity, let’s focus on what you need to know to create a tool that would do 80% or more of what you need done. If you were to bang enough stones together, you would eventually figure out the two most important things about creating a predictable flake:The Cone and The Platform.

The Cone:  The type of stones used in knapping have a conchoidal fracture. (If you aren’t sure what types of stones make good tools, read this entry) Conchoidal fracture means that the instant the blow strikes the surface it is transmitted into a cone radiating at about 100 degrees.This cone (also called a Hertzian Cone) determines at what angle you must strike a blow to remove a particular chunk of stone. Hertzian Cone

If you only had to know one thing about knapping this would be it. The images show a stone core being struck at the correct angle to produce the desired flake and at an incorrect angle in which the cone radiates too deeply into the core.

 

Striking the blow correctly (as shown at left) aligns the edge of the cone with the flake you want to remove. The chances you will get the desired flake are good. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Striking the blow at the wrong angle(as shown below) causes the cone to penetrate too deeply into the core.  The chances you will get the desired flake are very poor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The platform:The platform is the point of impact on the core stone. What is important is that the platform allows the shockwave to travel along the stone and create a fracture in the direction that you want.You are going to hit the stone somewhere and you just want to make sure that the somewhere is going to be conducive to transferring the energy in a direction that you want. That may mean shaping the platform by chipping or grinding so that you have a suitable point of impact. The image below shows a poor (non-existant) platform. The blow will just glance off the core because the platform doesn't exist.

 

 

 

References:

Is a great primer on the subject and a good place to start for the beginning knapper.

"Flintknapping – the art of making stone tools" by Paul Hellwig.

Is one of the best books out there but it has so much depth that it will probably just frustrate the beginning knapper.

"The Art of Flintknapping" by D.C. Waldorf

 

Video Resources:

This is a great series that should help you get started.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

You want to make a stone tool. What type of stone should you look for?

Examples of Chert
Chert formations, Pindus mountains Greece(source: candiru)
Examples of Chert

Our ancestors discovered that certain stones were very hard and, when broken, they formed very sharp edges.   These were logically used to produce cutting tools such as knife blades, arrowheads, axe heads and scrapers.  Geologists have refined classification of these various stones into categories such as flints, cherts, jaspers, chalcedonies, agates, quartz, obsidian, etc.  For the purposes of simplicity it is easy to lump them into two broad categories: Flint-like and obsidian. 

Flint-like stones all have a microcrystalline structure that breaks with a conchoidal fracture.  They are very hard (about a 7 on the Mohs Scale).  Their hardness and fracture qualities make them ideal for creating a durable cutting edge.   If you need a durable cutting tool, a flint-like stone would be your best bet.

Obsidian is natural glass that was made by volcanic action.  It also breaks in a conchoidal fracture and has a hardness of about 5.5 on the Mohs scale.   Since it was formed by quickly cooling, it does not have a crystalline structure.  Obsidian fractures to form an edge even sharper than the flint-like stones. Fractured obsidian can form an edge sharper than high-quality steel scalpels.  Since it is essentially glass it is more fragile than the flint-like stones.  If you needed to create a scalpel, then obsidian would be your best bet. That’s not to say that you can’t still make a fine tool from it.  It is just softer and more brittle than the flint-like stones. Obsidian can also be polished to form a mirror.

 

 

References:

 http://geology.com/rocks/chert.shtml

 http://geology.com/rocks/obsidian.shtml

What is the most effective way to kill pathogens in drinking water?

Boiling: Handy to know the answer if you are out backpacking or taking a trip to the less civilized parts of the world. Common options are to use chlorine, a ceramic filter, iodine tablets or to boil the water to treat it. Boiling water is the only known method that is 100% effective in destroying pathogens known to cause sickness. The Centers for Disease Control have a very handy chart comparing the effectiveness of various water treatments. It may not be as convenient as the other methods but it works and is effective.

True or False: Bees and flies can help you find surface water?

True. Bees don’t usually fly more than 3 miles from their nests and must have a constant water source. So watching the direction they fly when leaving the nest can be a valuable tool for locating water. Flies stay even closer to water – about 100m or so. Paying attention to insects and vegetation can be very important to finding water.  According to The Backyard Beekeeper by Kim Flottum, bees seek water sources that are scented.  They smell the water and they fly to it.  That’s why you see bees at swimming pools or stagnant puddles vs. fresh water sources.  Once they find a source they mark it with a pheromone so the other bees in the hive will find it.  My grandfather could locate a wild bee hive by sitting in a field of flowers and watching which direction the bees flew when they left.  He would then walk that direction and repeat the process until he pin pointed the hive.  Seems reasonable that you could do the same thing for water.  

The exception to this might be flies in the desert.  Those little buggers seem to come out of nowhere. Not a drop of water for miles but the flies still seem to survive.

How hot can you get a coal fired forge?

According to "Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers", 10th, coal gas burns at about 3,590°F (1,977°C) under 100% air conditions. More or less air will decrease the temperature. This means that the maximum temperature of a coal fire in a forge is about 3,500°F (1,927°C).

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Most organic compounds have a constant-pressure adiabatic flame temperature in a narrow range around 1950 °C.  Because compounds like wood, fat, and petroleum all have C-H bonds, C-C bonds and O-O bonds that are broken to release energy in roughly the same ratios, the adiabatic flame temperatures for these substances are nearly indistinguishable. It should be noted that, these temperatures are vastly higher than what any thermocouple inserted into a fire will register!

This means you will be able to melt common metals such as:

Metal Melting Point in °C
Brass 930
Copper 1084
Gold 1063
Iron 1536
Lead 327
Stainless Steel 1510

But not metals such as:

Metal Melting Point in°C 
Tungsten 3400
Molybdenum 2620
Iridium 2450